A Balcony Collapse Caused Many Injuries

My sister was visiting a friend a few weeks ago when there was an accident. I have heard news stories where people were on a balcony, and it collapsed, but I never expected it to happen to anyone I know. She was on the balcony with her friend as well as a few other people, and it just came down. It was only on the second story, thank goodness, but that was bad enough. I knew that before it was all over, she was going to need a Los Angles personal injury attorney to help her because the homeowner was already shifting blame onto the people on the balcony.

There were only five of them on it, and the balcony is large enough to hold at least twice that many people comfortably. Since it was not a matter of weight, the cause had to be in the design of the balcony itself. That was just my guess, but I wanted to make sure that my sister did not suffer even more than just her injuries since the homeowner wanted the victims to cover the costs themselves. Continue reading →

Your Hospital Choice Will Matter A Lot

Not all hospitals are created equal. Most people don’t really thing about the selection of a hospital. When they need a procedure done they often times go to the hospital the doctor doing the surgery is affiliated with. In emergency situations, people are either taken to a hospital where the ambulance takes them or go to the nearest hospital from where they presently are. People often do not even know if they are being medically cared for by a reputable hospital.

Not all hospitals are created equal. Most people don’t really thing about the selection of a hospital. When they need a procedure done they often times go to the hospital the doctor doing the surgery is affiliated with. In emergency situations, people are either taken to a hospital where the ambulance takes them or go to the nearest hospital from where they presently are. People often do not even know if they are being medically cared for by a reputable hospital.

If you want to locate the best hospitals in your area you can do some simple research. There usually is rating information on the hospitals in your area. Good hospitals are often nominated for excellence in certain categories. You may not be fortunate to live near a top rated hospital. IF you feel you need to be treated in one that has received top ratingsHealth Fitness Articles, you may find yourself traveling outside of your general vicinity or even your state. It is important to make sure you have extra costs due to traveling that your insurance company won’t pick up.

For the most part health insurance is regional and while some plans will pick up additional expenses for outside providers they usually do so at a much greater out of pocket expense to the patient. It is for this reason that many individuals are limited to receiving less then top notch care at their local hospital instead of seeing the top specialists at a top ranked facility.

If you know you are going to need a lifesaving medical procedure you may want to check U.S. News to find the top ranked hospitals and doctors who specialize in the procedure you need done. This list will also provide a list of those regional facilities in your area that are rated better than others. Then the next step is to contact your insurance company.

All in all there are many reasons to seek out a hospital that has an excellent reputation and offers the best possible care with the primary reason being of course your safety. Not all health care facilities put the patient’s needs first but there are many good institutions out there so be sure to keep looking until you find the best one available in your area

A Comfortable Hospital Bed Makes A Stay In The Hospital Easier

One of the hallmarks of medical facilities which cater to patients around the clock are the hospital beds in the rooms. For every different type of patient, there is a different sort of bed that is right for them. How will you know the best beds to have in your facility? What traits are inherent in quality products which might not be seen in those of poor workmanship? Overall, for general use, the hospital beds should be able to accommodate patients of the widest variety of heights and weights comfortably. If the beds are adjustable, the motors should be durable and able to withstand repeated uses, even with the heaviest of patient loads. The purpose of hospital beds will be to give the patients a comfortable place to rest during their stay. These beds should be strong and sturdy enough to last through the use of many patients over several years. This means that you will need to seek models crafted from heavy metals which will withstand repeated use over the years. Ease of use of the bed itself should also be a factor. If there are side rails on the unit, they should be easy to put up and take down for the caregiver. The space between the rails should be wide enough for even the largest of patients. Most hospital beds are up to 48 inches wide, but for obese patients, bariatric beds are available which are 48 to 60 inches wide between the rails. Bariatric beds are just one of the many types of hospital beds which cater to specific subsets of patients. While larger patients will need the bariatric beds, the smallest of patients will likely need pediatric or neo-natal beds. These tiny beds will prevent these special needs hospital visitors from feeling overwhelmed by having to use an adult beds. Too much excess stress can lead to a delay in healing. A bed sized for children will raise their comfort level, and thus help to speed their recovery. Additionally, these youth beds are also equipped with greater safety features such as rails that cannot be unlocked and pulled down by the patient. This removes an element of danger for even the most curious of juveniles. Not only are hospital beds used in medical facilities, but many patients find that they will require one for home use as well. The requirements for these home use models are the same as those of professional grade. If there is a caregiver that will visit the home, the side rails should be easily removed for him, if not, the patient must be able to quickly pull them down in case of an emergency that would require him to leave the beds in a hurry. If the bed is adjustable, the motor should be strong enough not to grind with use. Grinding of an electric hospital bed’s motor indicates that the unit is straining. This wears the mechanism down much quicker, and the price of buying that cheaply made motor will be making several replacements of the parts or of the motor itself. High quality motors might be slightly more, but they will save repair and replacement costs in the long run. When looking for a hospital bed, whether it is for home or hospital use, should be sturdy and easy for both the caregiver and the patient to use, while comfortably giving the patient enough room for rest.

How to be Fashionable Even at the Hospital

Doctors and even nurses always criticize their need to wear boring white or plain uniforms all the time. They have to wear the same style of uniforms day after day. For some, this may sound childish but they really do feel that they have the need to be more fashionable even though they are at work. Of course, feeling good means that they can do their jobs better with so much efficiency. They would also love to be appreciated for their attire not only of their good performance at work. Hence, how to be fashionable and be a stand out in the hospital scene would be a welcome idea to them. Fashion is not always about the clothes you wear nor the brand. A person who is wearing a landau scrub and white shoes may even look better than someone who is in a cocktail dress and high heels. What does this mean? It means that being fashionable is a choice whether you are wearing a plain uniform or a gorgeous and expensive dress. The first is the secret of posture. Posture emphasizes all the parts of your body from head to toe. It defines your aura and personality. It imbibes your positivity and even your vision. Try to stand straight with your chin up. Walk and feel the difference. Let your arms sway comfortably and with confidence and you will notice the impact it will bring to you and to your patients. Learn to have a good posture even when you are rushing to your patient’s room and even when you are just walking. Next, is attitude. Many says that attitude does not have anything to do with fashion but they are wrong. Having a good attitude will bring out a glow in you. A natural glow and a warm smile is the greatest accessory you can ever wear. It is better than the most expensive jewelries and designer dresses. Smile and everyone will smile at you and believe us, they will not even look at your landau medical scrubs. They will just focus on the positive energy that you are emitting. And whatever you are wearing will not be important anymore because you touched not only their eyes but their hearts as well. Of course, your sense of perfection at work is the greatest thing that could make you fashionable. Everyone will notice you if your heart and soul is dedicated at your work. You commit less and even no mistakes and at the same time giving satisfaction to your patients, to yourself and to the whole hospital community. There is nothing more fashionable than an intelligent and warm worker. Being fashionable is not about what you wear anymore. It is also your inner being and how you imbibe these to other people. Nobody can even copy this personal individuality of yours. Be fashionable through these advices and you will never go wrong. Even at hospitals, you will stand out among the crown of same uniforms because you are the one who makes a difference in everyone’s life.

Training and Qualifications For Hospitality Careers

More and more hotels prefer that their employees have additional education, especially for management positions. While most hotels want their managers to have a degree in hotel or restaurant management, many will also accept a liberal arts degree if it is combined with enough experience. Completing an internship, working part-time or during the summer at a hotel is vital to those seeking degrees in the hospitality field. The on the job training that is received is invaluable to graduates and give them great business contacts for their job search. A majority of 4 year degree programs offer work study to fulfill this need.

Previously most management positions were fulfilled from within the hotel by promoting from the lower level positions. While it is still possible to advance in this manner with out any formal education after high school, a degree is a great advantage over the competition. If you have restaurant experience and training, it will also give you a great advantage. This is because a hotels food and beverage services are a huge part of their operations.

Hundreds of different schools currently offer various degree programs in hospitality careers. Depending on your career plan you can obtain an associates, bachelors and graduate degree. That is not including all the technical and vocational institutes that offer certificate programs as well. These degree and certifications are in a wide range of careers such as various management, administration, accounting, business, food service, catering and even hotel engineering positions.

After graduation, most college students start as assistant managers and move their way up when they gain more experience. An increasing number of bigger hotels have created special on site training programs that take trainees through all the departments so they know every aspect of the hotels operations. There are also tuition reimbursement programs for those employees who want to get a degree in a hospitality related field. New hotels, especially one with well established training programs want to hire experienced managers at first but will eventually open positions for those less experienced.

There are going to be more opportunities for jobs and advancement into management positions at the larger hotels and motel chains. Little independent establishments just do not have as many opportunities to offer. However larger hotel and motel chains do often require their managers and assistance managers to relocate every few years. The larger hotel and motel chains are going to have a more extensive career ladder to be climb. At the top of these ladders there are some of the most lucrative management positions when compared to any business industry. While the higher you go the more responsibilities you undertake, the more money, benefits and perks you will receive.

Is a Hospitality Career for You?

Jamaica is well-known across the globe for its beautiful vacation spots, hospitality, culture and the resilience of its people. Over the years these factors have attracted millions of visitors to its shores and the best part of it is that many of these people have become repeat visitors.

This has open up the possibility of many job opportunities for the locals. In fact the Hospitality & Tourism sector is one of the largest employer of Jamaicans and the biggest contributor of foreign exchange. The major universities have incorporated courses geared at equipping individuals to work in this fast growing industry.

This is an enticing career field and can be quite tempting, especially with the very lucrative pay waiting for you and benefits in store. However, getting into this industry is not all about perks, benefits and big tips. It demands of you a lot of work which involves commitment and discipline.

So, before you pass that resume or application to undergo training, try to think carefully first if this kind of profession is really for you. Here are some points to ponder on to help you see the big picture more clearly.

Humility: Do You Have It?

This job is service oriented; therefore you are required to be prepared at all times regardless of the situation to offer service. This job asks for humility, you have to be humble and has a caring heart for people you are serving. If you are the type of person that cannot lower your pride, then this would be a pretty tough job for you. However, if you are the type who loves to serve and accommodate the needs of other people, this would be pretty easy on your part.

A Perpetual Smile

Being in this kind of profession means having a perpetual smile on your face throughout your working hours. You cannot grumble and complain about work, especially in front of your guests. No matter how bad your day has been, you should be prepared to serve people with a smile.

Smiling is one way of being hospitable. It is also one good way to make people feel that they are welcome in a new place. So, if you think you can’t keep that smile plastered on your face even if you’re not in the mood, then this kind of job is not ideally for you.

Ready To Work The Graveyard Shift?

Jobs in this field usually involve working in hotels, cafes, casinos and restaurants. All of which usually requires 24 hours a day, 7 days a week service providers. In most cases, you are not the one who will be setting your schedule but your manager.

You have to be ready to work the graveyard shift, schedules of working duty also varies. You have to be flexible and be prepared to adjust to whatever schedule you are given. It requires commitment so you have to be prepared physically and mentally also.

Goodbye Holidays!

Holidays are the busiest time of the year for this industry, therefore, you have to be prepared to give up your own holiday celebrations while you serve other people so that they can have their holiday vacation of a lifetime. This part of the job does not only affect you, but also your family. So it means that you will also have to prepare them so they can understand the nature of your job.

Home Away From Home

Travelling is a part for most positions in this career path. If you’ll be working in a cruise or airline setting, then you should be prepared to have your home away from home, which would be your ship or airplane. There are also tour guide positions in which you would sometimes be on tour for a number of days. You get to go home for about a day or so and you’ll be off on another tour once more.

So, do you think you can handle all these? If yes, then good luck with your hospitality career venture!

It is time to take charge of your career path and be the navigator of your future. Take stock and analyse the direction of your life and get back on course if you strayed.

Doreen Gibson is an online business entrepreneur, an Administrator and a mother who strives for excellence at all time.

Leadership Style Analysis (Nursing)

Growing shortage of nurses is a significant problem healthcare system has been experiencing in the recent years. However, another important deficiency should not be overlooked – that of nursing leaders. The scarcity of nursing leaders is undoubtedly detrimental to the healthcare system. In the environment where nurses are able to produce influence on the healthcare legislation, it is crucial that nursing leaders do exert this influence. Dedicated and enthusiastic leaders can make use of this advantage and bring about positive change, however at the moment such vibrant nursing leaders are few and far between. Such dearth can be explained by two factors: firstly, not many people currently enter the nursing profession and secondly, nurse training is concentrated on clinical skills to the detriment of leadership skills. Leadership used to be viewed as a domain of administrators. However, it is now clear that not only clinical, but also leadership skills should be nurtured in young nurses. Unfortunately, it is very common that much nurse training is dedicated to operating modern equipment and using complex technology, while nurses have absolutely no opportunity to develop and apply their leadership skills and principles. It is dictated by the government regulations that the clinical skills of nurses should be constantly improved by keeping up-to-date with education courses. But it is also crucial that nurses of any level should be trained to be competent and effective leaders.

According to the article by Horton-Deutch and Mohr, which described a BSN student’s clinical evaluations, the student’s negative opinion on the nursing profession was primarily caused by the “absence of nursing leadership” (Horton-Deutsch, S.L., & Mohr, W.K., 2001, 121). The authors believe that the chief task of nursing leaders is “develop one’s own leadership skills and those of one’s staff” (Horton-Deutsch, S.L., & Mohr, W.K., 2001, 60).

There is absolutely no doubt about the fact that Catherine Futch, AAACN (Ambulatory Nursing Academy) past president is an effective nursing leader. Her profound educational preparation (Catherine possesses a Master of Nursing Degree) enabled her to make a brilliant career in the field of healthcare. Catherine’s pathway to success as a nursing leader included a number of leadership positions at several hospitals, as well as faculty and committee appointments. While speaking about Catherine’s accomplishments as a professional mention must be made of her numerous awards and recognitions, among which is Jane Van de Verde Award, which acknowledged the invaluable contribution Catherine made to the health service for citizens of Georgia. An award, which deserves special mention, is the Mary N. Long Award. It was given to Catherine to acknowledge her innovative approach to the nursing practice. The last but not least is the 2003 Woman of the Year Award, granted to her as a most talented healthcare executive.

Catherine has worked at AAACN since 1995, when she joined Kaiser Permanente. The major contribution of AAACN to the public healthcare is providing resources and information dealing with a variety of health care institutions, among which are public health organizations, medical offices, health centers and others. AAACN also strives to promote professional medical practice as well as literacy of medical staff when it comes to health care legislation. The people of medical profession are also strongly encouraged to take active part in the legislative measures, which could influence health care.

Catherine, currently AAACN Past President, has been in her position for four years now. She is enjoying the opportunities this position gives her to make positive change. Having become AAACN president in 2003, Catherine searched for new strategies to emphasize the value of AAACN, maintain financial stability, create a strong connection between national and local healthcare.

However, it is quite remarkable that Catherine does not list her appointments and recognitions while describing an effective nursing leader. Catherine states that it is crucial for the nursing leader to possess certain usual skills, among which are organization, planning, decision-making, finance and change management. All of the abovementioned skills are essential, but they constitute the easier part of the nursing leader profession. It is clearly the interaction between the staff members, where the nursing leader has to apply her professional skills.

Speaking about the ways Catherine motivates others, mention must be made of the fact that throughout her professional career Catherine was guided by the principle “Nothing is impossible”. This unshakable confidence and unfailing enthusiasm helped her find effective solutions to all kinds of organizational needs. Catherine just constantly kept in mind the positive outcome and her determination to achieve even the most challenging goals proved to inspire and motivate others. Catherine is very keen on planning for the future. She takes her energy in hard tasks. She likes challenging herself, learning something new and enjoying the feeling of accomplishment.

While identifying the qualities, necessary for a successful leader Catherine pointed out the following: an effective leader should be able to inspire and motivate others, set an example worth following, guide individuals through tough times. A true leader should have the ability to manage individuals as well as groups in an efficient way. Catherine believes that the major ways to influence the staff are unquestionable authority and organizational hierarchy. For an effective nursing leader it is utterly important to facilitate the collaboration between individuals and groups. A successful and inspired nursing leader should always concentrate on the goal and the opportunities to achieve it and not on the barriers or obstacles. The effective nursing leader should have a strong belief that even the things that seem impossible can be done.

Among the challenges that Catherine faced being a nursing leader, she mentioned the fact that it is not a rare occurrence that people of several difference generations work together simultaneously. Quite understandably, they all have different expectations and they view being a professional employee differently. Catherine states that unfortunately it is no longer common for medical workers to enter organizations, despite their tremendous value. As a result of multiple discussions on what the healthcare organization of tomorrow should be like, Catherine decided to implement the innovative idea of audio conference. The essence of this quite reasonably priced option lies in the following: interested groups or individuals can receive all the recent content on healthcare at the comfort of their own homes or workplaces. This innovation proved extremely successful and evoked much positive feedback.

Another important and at the same time challenging area, in which a substantial impact on the part of the nursing leader is required, is the orientation of young nurses. Catherine believes that in order to secure their efficient performance, profound academic background has to be supplemented with mentoring and guiding by experienced nurses. It is crucial that the atmosphere at the hospital is welcoming and the staff supportive. At the initial stages of their work the young nurses have to be given an opportunity to learn, gain experience and practice their newly gained skills.

Among the most gratifying aspects of the leadership position is the ability to make a difference, change things for the better. Catherine is convinced that it is of vital importance for any nurse, whatever the age or experience, to be knowledgeable about the local and national regulations dealing with health care. It is also essential to be up-to-date with the most recent changes in this sphere and also possess the confidence that one can make a difference.

As regards the diversity of workers and patients, it is much appreciated by Catherine. Diversity of workers provides them with an invaluable opportunity to share their professional experience and enrich their professional knowledge. However, being a leader, Catherine has to find an individual approach to every worker to secure his or her efficient performance. As regards the diversity of patients, the same individual approach is required in dealing with them, while the variety of medical cases enables the doctors to create precedents and define the best treatments for a particular case.

At this stage it appears opportune to briefly analyze the main leadership styles. This will provide us with a well-informed perspective necessary to define Catherine’s leadership style correctly. Among the major leadership theories the following should be mentioned: dynamic leader-follower model, quantum leadership, leadership trait theory, interactional leadership theory, transformational theory and management theory, situational leadership.

Speaking about the quantum leadership, credit must be given to Porter-O’Grady, who observed that the leadership hierarchy was directly influenced by the knowledge, primarily that of technology. A shift has occurred in the relationship between leadership and knowledge. Staff nurses, who are given relative autonomy, participate in the decision-making process and influence the outcome. According to Porter-O’Grady, bottom-up leadership can be motivated by encouraging self-direction instead of giving direction (Porter-O’Grady, T., 1999, 41).

The next nursing leadership theory to be touched upon is called dynamic leader-follower model. The theory was proposed by Laurent. Both the leader and the follower are vital for the success of the leadership style. The leader should provide the employee with direction, but should not exercise stringent control, thus allowing for a dynamic relationship (Laurent, C.L. 2000, 83-87). As a result of resorting to this leadership type, commitment and motivation are instilled in the worker.

Speaking about the trait theory, it must be mentioned that one of the basic principles of this theory is the belief that leaders are born with definite leader characteristics. Such leadership traits as intelligence, ambition, decisiveness, self-confidence, enthusiasm and mastery are identified. Other leadership situations components are neglected.
Interactional theory implies strong organizational culture, influence and authority of the leader, common system of values of the leader and followers, work, which has to be done.
Situational leadership theory recognizes the impact produced on the leader by the situation, states that situation can cause a leadership shift.

Transformational leadership holds as its goal the union of manager and employee, where anyone is encouraged to take the lead. Transformational leadership is undoubtedly empowering and it is therefore favored. This leadership style promotes innovation and change, which is most suited for a dynamic healthcare setting. As a result of evaluating old and new policies, encouraging feedback from the employees, the best procedures and policies are implemented. The nursing leader, who follows this leadership style, facilitates active participation of the employees in the decision-making process within their powers. Transformational leader is committed to the goals of the organization, possesses the ability to empower and inspire others, is able to achieve high employee satisfaction and effective group performance.

Taking into the consideration all the information mentioned above a fully justified conclusion can be drawn, which goes as follows: Catherine Futch successfully uses interactional leadership style. In the interview she stressed the importance of the strong authority of the leader, built on experience and determination. Catherine stated in the interview that organization, planning, decision-making, finance and change management are among the responsibilities of the nursing leader and they should be performed efficiently. She also believes that the importance of the organizational hierarchy should not be underestimated. Excessive emphasis of the hierarchy however fails to empower workers, which can be a serious disadvantage of the leadership strategy. Catherine strives to manage both individuals and groups on the basis of a common system of values, inspiring them with a common cause, which is definitely an advantage of her style. Catherine also mentioned her desire to perform the tasks, seemingly impossible. Such elements as strong organizational culture, authority and influence of the leader and orientation on the work to be done clearly testify about the interactional leadership style being used.

Mention must also be made of the fact that Catherine resorts to a few elements of the transformational leadership style. She does encourage feedback from the employees and makes nurses of any level believe that they can make a difference. Innovation is also a major part of her activity as a nursing leader.

Nursing Unions And Their Importance

If one were in their first Nursing job, then they would be pretty much interested in knowing about the Nurse Union and how it is going to work out for them. If any one of their parents had been part of a union, then that experience could help the newly joined nurses in getting an idea about the unions.

Unions have been primarily created to protect the workers from unlawful exploitation by the business owners. Some of the areas in which the workers needed some support were the areas of Worker compensation, working hours and working environment. Hence the need for the unions to protect the employees from exploitation by the business owners on the above mentioned factors arose. Trade unions are formed by a group of workers with an elected leader.

Union leader’s main responsibility is to represent the workers and fight for their rights in terms of getting the correct wages, proper working conditions and other worker related benefits. The Management of the company have to discuss with the union leadership regarding all worker related matters such as Worker Firing, Hiring, Worker Bonus related issues and worker compensatory leave benefits.

The entire workforce is legally bound to work according to the agreement reached between the Union leadership and the management. A newly joined nurse can take up the option of joining the Union, as it gives them the security of being in a group, which gives them the stability that is needed at the beginning of the career. Joining a Union is has its own benefits and disadvantages.

The benefits that one accrues are that they will be a part of all the benefits that are negotiated by the union leadership with the Management. These negotiations will cover the Compensation benefits, bonus related discussions, Compensated time offs and health care coverage. But there are some areas where the union member might be interested, but the union members has a majority may not be interested in that.

For example, the member might be interested in the Reimbursement of education program, but the other members of the union might not be interested in that. So, there are pros and cons of being in a nurse’s union. Before joining the union, nurses should pose themselves some hard questions.

These questions should give answers with respect to the role that is going to be played by the union in trying to safeguard the interests of the nurses. A Nurse should feel that the Union should be beneficial to the entire business group as a whole. Union should not put the nurse workforce against the management just for the sake of satisfying certain section of the union. If the nurse gets a positive feel of these situations, then they can go ahead and join the union

Enjoy Your New Career With Dental Assistant Certification

Are you a career-oriented person who wants to make a difference in your profession? If so, then you may enjoy a denal office assistant training program. With dental offie assistant training program, you will be able to prepare yourself for a fulfilling career in this fast-growing employment field. Through this program, you will learn about how to run a denal office or dental clinic.

This training program helps you understand your role as a dentl office assistant, where you can put your social and managerial skills to work. You will learn how to coordinate patient schedules and complete critical dental offce work. Whatever your ultimate job goals are, you can prepare for this profession using this online Dental Assistant Certification course.

Apart from this, if you want to take on more responsibilities in a medical office or healthcare environment then you may want to consider this Medical transcription training program. This program prepares you to work with physicians, in a medical office, insurance company, or a hospital. This program presents practical transcription exercises, building your typing speed and accuracy and improving your anatomy and medical vocabulary.

These Career Training Programs are offered online in fields such as pharmacy technician, medical transcriptionist, medical billing and coding and more. Expand your career opportunities by doing something new with the freedom and flexibility of studying online. Consider an online program that offers the added benefit of learning anytime, anywhere. Through these flexible online programs, you will get a quality education and advance your career opportunities.

There are several career institutes like Blackstone which offer adult learners’ convenient and affordable training that accommodates for busy schedules while helping students successfully meet their educational goals. So what are you waiting for? Enroll in a career training course and get started today for a brighter tomorrow.

Are you a career-oriented person who wants to make a difference in your profession? If so, then you may enjoy a dental offce assistant training program. With denal office assistant training program, you will be able to prepare yourself for a fulfilling career in this fast-growing employment field. Through this program, you will learn about how to run a dental ofice or dental clinic.

This training program helps you understand your role as a dental ofice assistant, where you can put your social and managerial skills to work. You will learn how to coordinate patient schedules and complete critical denal office work. Whatever your ultimate job goals are, you can prepare for this profession using this online Dental Assistant Certification course.

Hospitality and Tourism Courses Available in Different University.

Hospitality and Tourism Management (HTM) is a multidisciplinary field of study with the purpose of preparing people with the expertise, commitment, and skills for management, marketing, and operations positions in the expanding industry that provides food, accommodations, and tourism services to people away from home. As a field of study, Hospitality and Tourism Management is interdisciplinary. It draws upon a wide range of basic disciplines to provide the fundamental knowledge and skills that are required to fulfill the diverse demands placed upon individuals in management positions within the hospitality industry.

Recognizing that the individual educated for today is soon out of date, the academic emphasis of the program is on principles, analytical tools, processes, and systems. These change relatively slowly. However, it is recognized that at least a minimal exposure to the skills and knowledge which make up the present state of the art is necessary to understand the principles. Likewise, it is recognized that the students in the program are composites of many talents, and that in hospitality and tourism, pure academic ability cannot predict professional success. Thus, the program has as a basic objective the presentation of an academic curriculum to develop management capability through interdisciplinary subject exposure, problem identification, basic concepts, decision making, theory, and management application. Because technology is such a vital part of the business world, students are required to maintain an active Office of Information Technologies (OIT) account when accepted into the major. In addition, students are encouraged to develop foreign language skills to better prepare for this increasingly international industry.

Students majoring in HTM may elect a concentration in Casino Management, Club Management, Lodging Management, Food and Beverage Management (Commercial and Non-Commercial), and Tourism, Convention and Event Management. Detailed information about the program and courses can be found on the HTM website and in the department’s undergraduate handbook.

The increasing popularity of HTM courses and programs has necessitated certain enrollment controls. Students who have an interest in transferring to HTM (either from other units of the university or from other colleges or universities) should contact the HTM Academic Adviser very early in their academic careers to determine their prospects for admission.

A student planning to transfer from within the university should file a complete application accompanied by an essay addressing the student’s reason for wishing to enter the major, learning objectives, and career goals. The student must complete the following three courses with a grade of C or better, though a grade of B or better is preferred, before acceptance into the major: HT-MGT 100; ECON 103 or RES-ECON 102 or ECON 104; and MATH 121 or higher, or STATISTC 111 or 240, or RES-ECON 211 or 212. At the time of application, students must have completed at least one semester at the university, be in good academic standing and have fewer than 70 credits. Satisfactory completion of these conditions, although required, does not guarantee admission into HTM. On-campus applications for admission can be obtained from the department website or the HTM office, Flint 107. Students applying for transfer to HTM from other institutions should apply through the Office of Transfer Affairs.

Students who major in HTM must complete the following required courses:
A. Math/Statistics Requirement
1. The department requires only MATH 121 Linear Methods and Probability but encourages students to take MATH 127 and 128 if they expect to go to graduate school.
2. Statistics Requirement: STATISTC 240 Introduction to Statistics, STATISTC 111 Elementary Statistics, or RES-ECON 211, 212 Introductory Statistics for the Social Sciences.
Hospitality Management is the study of the hospitality industry. A degree in the subject may be awarded either by a university college dedicated to the studies of hospitality management or a business school with a relevant department.Degrees in hospitality management may also be referred to as hotel management, hotel and tourism management, or hotel administration. Degrees conferred in this academic field include BA, Bachelor of Business Administration, BS, MS, MBA, and PhD. Hospitality management covers hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, amusement parks, destination marketing organizations, convention centers, and country clubs.
International Tourism Management is a degree course, whose main focuses with regard to contents consist of business basics with a tourism covering, cross cultural and social competence as well as leadership- and professional competence.
International Tourism Management is a degree course, whose main focuses with regard to contents consist of business basics with a tourism covering, cross cultural and social competence as well as leadership- and professional competence.
Tourism is the travel for recreational, leisure, family or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.

Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases it is of vital importance.

Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus.It then slowly recovered, with international tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone 1 billion tourists globally for first time in history in 2012.International tourism receipts (the travel item of the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (‚¬740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism globally with US$102 billion, surpassing Germany and United States. China and emerging markets significantly increase their spending over the past decade, with Russia and Brazil as noteworthy examples.